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Department of Veterinary Medicine

Cambridge Veterinary School

Studying at Cambridge


Dr Caroline Trotter

Dr Caroline  Trotter

Senior Lecturer in Epidemiology

Fellow of Hughes Hall

Office Phone: +44 1223 765631


I am an infectious disease epidemiologist, based in the Disease Dynamics Unit.I obtained my first degree in Human Sciences from the University of Oxford, followed by an MSc and PhD in Infectious Disease Epidemiology at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. I worked at the Health Protection Agency and then the University of Bristol before moving to Cambridge in January 2013. I am an honorary epidemiologist in Public Health England's Immunisation Department.

Subject groups/Research projects

Mathematical Biology:

Departments and Institutes

Cambridge Infectious Diseases:

Research Interests

My research concentrates on understanding the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases and the impact of immunisation. The majority of my work is on meningococcal infection, but I am also involved in research on pneumococcus, group B streptococcus, rotavirus and human papillomavirus. I use a range of methods including analysis of large databases, systematic reviews, prospective clinical/ field studies, health economics, seroprevalence studies and mathematical modelling. I am most interested in applying these methods to research questions of direct relevance for vaccine policy.

I  work with the African Meningococcal Carriage Consortium (MenAfriCar), a global research effort to study how meningococcal meningitis is spread in Africa, and to document the impact of a new meningitis vaccine (MenAfriVac) on reducing transmission. 

I also work on collaborative projects with Public Health England, University of Bristol, St Georges University of London, Agence de Medicine Preventive and the World Health Organisation. 

Click for details of Meningitis Research Foundation funded projects on cost-effectiveness of GBS vaccines, persistence of MenAfriVac, use of MenAfriVac in pregnant women and how people value the benefits of vaccination.

Research Supervision

I have supervised 4 PhD students to successful completion at the University of Bristol.

I currently supervise one PhD student and one MPhil student in Cambridge.



  • Mathematical modelling
  • Epidemic control
  • Vaccines
  • Epidemiology
  • Bacterial meningitis
  • Infectious Diseases

Key Publications

Karachaliou A, Conlan AJ, Preziosi MP, Trotter CLModeling Long-term Vaccination Strategies With MenAfriVac in the African Meningitis Belt. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61 Suppl 5:S594-600. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ508

MenAfriCar Consortium. The diversity of meningococcal carriage across the African meningitis belt and the impact of vaccination with a group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine. J Infect Dis 2015.  doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv211 

Christensen H, Trotter CL, Hickman M, Edmunds WJ. Re-evaluating the cost-effectiveness of universal ‘MenB’ (Bexsero) vaccination in England: a modelling study. BMJ 2014  349 doi: 

Daugla DM, Gami JP,  Gamougam K, Naibei N, Mbainadji L, Narbé M,  Toralta J, Kodbesse B, Ngadoua C, Coldiron M, Ferman F, Page A-L,  Djingarey M,  Hugonnet S, Harrison OB, Rebbetts LS, Tekletsion Y, Watkins ER, Caugant DA,  Chandramohan D,  Hassan-King M, Manigart O, Nascimento M, Woukeu A,  Trotter C, Stuart JM, Maiden MCJ, Greenwood B. The impact of a serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) on serogroup A meningococcal meningitis and carriage in Chad. Lancet 2014.383:40-7

Irving T, Blyuss K, Colijn C, Trotter CL. Modelling meningococcal meningitis in the African meningitis belt. Epidemiol & Infect 2012 May;140(5):897-905.

Rozenbaum M, van Hoek AJ, Fleming D, Trotter CL, Miller E, Edmunds WJ. Cost-effectiveness of vaccinating risk groups in England against invasive pneumococcal disease using the 13 valent pneumococcal vaccine: an economic analysis. BMJ. 2012 345:e6879

Christensen H, May MT, Bowen L, Hickman M, Trotter CL. A systematic review of meningococcal carriage by age. Lancet Infect Dis 2010, 10:853-61

Visit Google Scholar to see all my papers