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Department of Veterinary Medicine

Cambridge Veterinary School

Studying at Cambridge


Dr George Carnell

Dr George Carnell

Research Associate


George read Biology with Microbiology at Imperial College, and then completed an MSc at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in Medical Microbiology (Virology).  George completed his PhD in 2017 at the Medway School of Pharmacy under the supervision of Dr Nigel Temperton, Dr Simon Scott and Prof Sarah Gilbert (Jenner inst. Oxford).  His project primarily involved the production of lentiviral pseudotypes bearing glycoproteins from various influenza subtypes and strains, as well as the production and application of a chimeric haemagglutinin pseudotype system for the detection of HA stalk directed, neutralising antibodies.  His current work still involves the influenza virus as well as Lassa and Ebola viruses, with aims towards the production and testing of broadly protective vaccines.


Subject groups/Research projects

Infection and Immunity:

Research Interests

Primary interests surround the use of viruses as tools, in particular with regard to the production of vaccines, gene therapy applications and next generation assays for immunogenicity testing.


  • Flow cytometry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Pseudotypes
  • Neutralisation assay
  • Universal vaccine

Key Publications

Thompson, C. P., Lourenco, J., Walters, A. A., Obolski, U., Edmans, M., Palmer, S. D., Kooblall, K., Carnell, G. W., Connor, D. O., Bowden, T. A., Pybus, O. G., Pollard, A. J., Temperton, N. J., Lambe, T., Gilbert, S. G., Gupta, S. (2017). Identification of an epitope of limited variability under strong immune selection in the haemagglutinin head domain of H1N1 influenza. BioRxIV Doi: 10.1101/212845.

Carnell, G. W., Grehan, K., Ferrara, F., Molesti, E., Temperton, N. J. (2017). An Optimized Method for the Production Using PEI, Titration and Neutralization of SARS-CoV Spike Luciferase Pseudotypes. Bio-Protocol, 7 (16). Doi: 10.21769/BioProtoc.2514

Valkenburg, S. A., Mallajosyula, V. V. A., Li, O. T. W., Chin, A. W. H., Carnell, G. W., Temperton, N. J., Varadarajan, R., Poon, L. L. M. (2016). Stalking influenza by vaccination with pre-fusion headless HA mini-stem. Scientific Reports. 6: 1-11. Doi: 10.1038/srep22666.

Carnell, G. W., Ferrara, F., Grehan, K., Thompson, C. P., Temperton, N. J. (2015). Pseudotype-based neutralization assays for influenza: A systematic analysis. Frontiers in Immunology. 6(MAR): 1- 17. Doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2015.00161.

Hernandez-Triana, L. M., Jeffries, C. L., Mansfield, K. L., Carnell, G. W., Fooks, A. R., Johnson, N. (2014). Emergence of West Nile Virus Lineage 2 in Europe: A Review on the Introduction and Spread of a Mosquito-Borne Disease. Frontiers in Public Health. 2:271. Doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2014.00271